A multi-year plan to measure how our students progress towards proficiency

In order to know where you’re going, you need to know where you’re at.  

In our department recently, we decided to find out to what extent our scope and sequence is moving students towards higher proficiency.  

Next fall, the Spanish 1 teachers will be selecting seven promising students about two weeks into the school year for an OPI / proficiency study.  We said “seven” at our meeting on Thursday, but I think I’m going to come back later and suggest ten. I will do OPI’s with the selected students at the beginning of September, and then again in May during each year that they study Spanish.  

Span 1Sept OPI

Span 2
Sept OPI

Span 3
Sept OPI

Span 4 or AP Span
Sept OPI


I will also be looking to do this with my heritage students.  It’s trickier, because they are more varied in terms of their entrance proficiency levels, but that also makes it all the more worthwhile.  Are my heritage classes moving students forward with their language proficiency – or as Kim Potowski suggests, linguistic development? Will Intermediate students sneak into the Advanced range? Will Advanced-Low students become Advanced-Mid, over 2-3 years?

Sept OPI

Sept OPI

AP Span
Sept OPI


Here are some questions we are attempting to answer.

  • We would like to determine the extent to which our curriculum is (or is not) advancing students upwards along the proficiency spectrum.  What’s the temperature of our curriculum as it currently stands? How do “strong” students, the ones who are invested in their learning and do the work we give, end up doing with what we teach?  
  • Are there certain courses in which language growth seems to slow down?  We have started questioning if the classes after Span 1 (especially year 3 and higher) are focusing on content that is too advanced and thus slows down progress. We should be able to hear a qualitative difference from September to May, in any proficiency-oriented class.  Will we?
  • Will the students themselves, and perhaps their classmates who look on, be more motivated to acquire language by seeing themselves and/or their classmates advance in proficiency from one year to the next?  
  • We suspect that the results we hear will lead us to hear what our students are not able to do and examine where our curriculum might be falling short.  This school year, we already started to implement some changes in Spanish 3 based on our understanding of proficiency. For example, we tossed out an environmental unit and replaced it with a unit of stockpiled Scholastic magazines.  What else should we do?

We are looking forward to learning about our students, about our curriculum, and about  proficiency in the classroom as we embark on this in a few months. Fortunately, our school offers a school-wide 60-minute lunch break, so it’ll be easy to get them all in in half hour slots, still leaving me enough time to eat.  

My intention is to keep recording our findings and our realizations on my blog here, so stay tuned over the next few… years.

Have any thoughts about this?  How about a name for this project?  If you have any ideas, let me hear them!  

The most important thing to improve your heritage students’ proficiency

Teaching heritage language classes is becoming more and more common in the U.S., particularly in school districts with high Latino populations.  Talk to any World Language teacher you find, and chances are they will tell you that their school is “starting a heritage track”, or has done so “within the last few years”.  And we all get emails on our listserv with those teachers who write something along the lines of “I’m going to be starting a heritage class next year at my school!  I’m really excited, but nervous.  I’d love some help and some collaboration, so hit me up with your ideas!” 

I’d like to help by offering what I believe is the most important element for that teacher and that classroom.  The answer?  A teacher who is committed to improving his or her own proficiency in the target language.  

Let’s bring ACTFL proficiency levels into the conversation here.  

*A teacher with Advanced-Low proficiency cannot provide most heritage students with the level of input they need to progress in their proficiency.*

In the state that I live, the ACTFL proficiency level required to work as a K-12 World Language educator is Advanced-Low.  Here are a few select descriptors from the Advanced-Low proficiency list from ACTFL:  

  • participate in most informal and some formal conversations on topics related to school, home, and leisure activities
  •  narrate and describe in the major time frames of past, present, and future in paragraph-length discourse with some control of aspect
  • Responses produced by Advanced Low speakers are typically not longer than a single paragraph
  • dominant language may be evident in the use of false cognates, literal translations, or the oral paragraph structure of that language
  •  irregular flow, and containing noticeable self-correction
  • vocabulary of Advanced Low speakers often lacks specificity

Does this sound like the type of input that will move forward a heritage speaker?  Will heritage speakers be helped by “false cognates”, “irregular flow”, and  “literal translations” – basically, more of what they already produce?  

How can a speaker (a teacher) that can produce “typically not longer than a single paragraph” lead a discussion about the value or offensive nature of Confederate statues?  How beneficial will a conversation about the advantages and disadvantages of independence for Catalonia be if lead with only “some control of aspect”?  



Most of my heritage students are well into the Intermediate range with their use of language, with a few who may already be into the Advanced range.  Their listening ability, without doubt, will be at or above the Advanced level – and therefore they need to be listening and using language beyond that, which in OPI parlance is called “probing” – and “i + 1″ in SLA studies.  

The Advanced-Low Spanish teacher can handle his 5th hour Spanish 3 class just fine.  Those students are in the process of comprehending Intermediate-level input in the target language.  The level of language that is used in that class – both the content studied, and general classroom commands and discourse –  will most often be below Advanced-Low.  It will be hard for that same teacher, however, to move a group of heritage students forward.  

Slide2One of the philosophical pieces of my heritage language teaching, as opposed to my general language classrooms, is that my heritage students are already receiving a great deal of Intermediate- and Advanced-level input outside of the classroom.  What they need most linguistically is written and spoken input above those levels, and then a setting in which they are pushed to produce output at a level just above where they are at.  Therefore it follows that an effective heritage classroom teacher will need to be comfortable at the Advanced level, and possess the capacity to produce some language at the Superior level in order to conduct academic discussions and provide rich input.


For that reason, heritage teachers should be north of that minimum Advanced-Low requirement.  I recommend a minimum of Advanced-Mid proficiency for any teacher of a heritage classroom.  The higher, the better.  So start moving higher!  

The better your Spanish proficiency, the more trust you will gain from your heritage students.  

According to The Atlantic, over 81% of teachers in the U.S. are White.  It is highly likely that a teacher standing in front of a group of Latino heritage speakers will not be a native/heritage speaker themselves.  The power dynamic of a White teacher standing in front of a group of Latino/Hispanic students with the job of “teaching them Spanish” can be a delicate one.Slide3

I believe that improving one’s Spanish proficiency can help overcome uncertainty or mistrust that may exist.  Sure, being knowledgeable about their culture, their interests, and starting class with “Wasn’t that case on Caso Cerrado last night crazy?” are all fundamental for establishing a relationship with your students.  Hearing their teacher speak highly proficient Spanish will also make them more receptive and build up their belief that they will learn from you.

A few months ago, I saw an entry from a teacher in the ACTFL community forum who stated that she felt like she didn’t have a lot to offer her heritage students (who were mixed into the general language classroom) in terms of fluency and proficiency building, so they get that through reading.  I asked myself if fluency building happens primarily through the resources students read and listen to, or through the conversation and dialog that is had about the resources we give them?  My gut feeling is that it’s the discussion, the back-and-forth dialog about the content under study, 

Class discussion about Puerto Rican political prisoner Oscar Lopez Rivera, pardoned by Obama in January 2017

that builds the fluency of heritage students.  It’s requiring output from them, and pushing them to negotiate meaning and deal with topics from the Advanced and Superior levels that puts hair on their chest (as my dad says).  We as teachers have to be ready to interact with them at that level.


The road to superior

So what to do?  I am of the opinion that every heritage teacher should take steps to push themselves to the ‘Superior’ level of the ACTFL proficiency scale.  What does that look like, though?  

Check out some of my recommendations (and my journey) in this sequel post here!  

Other references mentioned:  


The Atlantic article https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2018/01/a-root-cause-of-the-teacher-diversity-problem/551234/

ACTFL Community forum, Spanish for Heritage Learners SIG, June 3, 2017.

ACTFL’s proficiency descriptors:  https://www.actfl.org/publications/guidelines-and-manuals/actfl-proficiency-guidelines-2012/english/speaking#superior

The road to ‘Superior’, and getting heritage teachers there

In my previous post, I insisted that the most awesome thing that an awesome heritage teacher can do is work at speaking awesome Spanish.  In ACTFL parlance = Superior.   But what is Superior proficiency, and how do you work towards it?  

In June 2016, I was a guinea pig for an OPI workshop.  I was already interested in pursuing OPI certification by that point, and so I was looking for any way to rub shoulders with folks who were in the process.  I wasn’t sure if I had Superior level proficiency or not in order to pursue full OPI certification, or if it would be better to do MOPI certification.  

An OPI workshop candidate was called up front to do an interview with me.  I was facing the candidate, and to my back, the trainer was typing notes and comments on a Word doc that my trainee tester could see.  I was easily able to…

  • talk about what I do for a living (Intermediate)
  • explain what some of my interests are (Intermediate)
  • talk about my daily routine and my family (Intermediate)

and also…

  • tell a story from middle school about forgetting lines in a skit in front of the whole school (Advanced)
  • describe my middle school gym (Advanced)
  • explain what I like about teaching (Advanced)
  • narrate how I decided to become a teacher (Advanced)

Then the OPI trainer stopped the trainee who was testing me and said “We clearly have plenty of evidence of ability at the Advanced level.  So what do we do now?”  And the OPI trainees said “Start with Superior probes”.

And that’s when I fell flat on my face.

  • “How do you think that art and music impact society?”  (Superior)
  • “Only about 50% of Americans participate in voting even though we have voting freedom and rights here.  Why is that, and how can we increase participation?” (Superior)

Insert a confused-George-Costanza-gif here.  I wasn’t ready for that level of abstract thinking and that level of discourse.  I muttered out a few sentences for each question, and then just kind of fell silent.  It was pretty awkward.  I didn’t even share an anecdote or example to answer these – which is a typical characteristic of an Advanced level speaker trying to perform an Superior level task.  For some reason, I felt so intimidated.  

Don’t I translate for church on Sunday? 

Isn’t everyone always talking about how great my Spanish is?  (side comment – a bit of white privilege, perhaps?  How many immigrants get complimented on their English?)

Didn’t I do graduate school in Spanish? 

I teach in Spanish, and speak it with my kids at home. What’s wrong with me?  

I’ve only spent about 5 months of my life abroad in Spanish-speaking contexts.  Maybe I haven’t lived abroad enough to hit the Superior level.  

The fact of the matter is, we spend most of our life at the Intermediate and Advanced level.  We ask questions at the store, ask for a stapler, and wake our kids up with Intermediate level language (perhaps some Novice).  We tell stories about childhood mischief and call Verizon to report a lost phone with Advanced level language.  But Superior level speech is generally used in academic settings, Fox News Sunday, professional job interviews, and White House press briefings if and when Trump is not the one behind the podium.

What I ended up doing was spending a year immersing myself in content at this level.  And in July 2017, I scored ‘Superior’ on an OPIc (computerized version of the OPI – boy is that brutal), and a few months later again in my official OPI.

Here are a few of the main characteristics of Superior level discourse, taken directly from ACTFL’s description:

  • variety of topics in formal and informal settings from both concrete and abstract perspectives
  • discuss their interests and special fields of competence
  • explain complex matters in detail
  • provide lengthy and coherent narrations
  • present opinions on a number of issues of interest
  • social and political issues
  • provide structured arguments to support opinions
  • construct and develop hypotheses to explore alternative possibilities
  • use extended discourse without unnaturally lengthy hesitation to make a point, even when engaged in abstract elaborations
  • separating main ideas from supporting information

Below, I’ll share a few examples of things that I did over the course of a year to build up to the Superior level.  

I listened to…

  • CNN Chile
  • Tiempo de Análisis, a weekly podcast from la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
  • …interviews with Mario Vargas Llosa

I typed in

  • “entrevista sobre” on YouTube and clicked on results that caught my attention – how social media is affecting the life of Latin American youth, what it’s like to be a Muslim in Spain
  • “debate sobre” on YouTube and watched debates about capital punishment in Guatemala, educational reform in Mexico, and an address of Pablo Iglesias to the Spanish Parliament

I read

  • novels.  I developed a love for Mario Vargas Llosa during this time (“Cinco Esquinas” is the most twisted novel I have ever read), and also “La Casa De Los Espíritus” by Isabel Allende.
  • news.  I found El Pais from Spain to be the news site that offered good coverage on both U.S. issues and international issues that I valued.  And the articles seem to all be produced by their journalists, in Spanish – not translations from AP Press or other sources originally in English.

I spoke

  • with a colleague who did many OPI’s during her years in the Peace Corps and who knew how to quiz me.  She found a list of thought-provoking questions and sat and threw them at me.  She would force me to support my opinion.  Sometimes she would switch to English when the conversation went above her comfort level.  It was hard at first but eventually became easier.  We got together about four times.
  • with myself using questions I found a list of at http://www.debate.org.  I would answer them and answer these questions to myself as I went biking.

The results

I must say that the entire year was a blessing.  I don’t feel that I only grew linguistically.  I ended up interacting with so many different viewpoints on life, society, politics, culture, and history from so many different Spanish-speaking countries. 

I felt like the year was a crash course in intellectual growth.  Even if I had gotten to my OPI certification process and ended up only scoring Advanced-High, the process still developed me as a Spanish speaker and as a human being.

I see the fruits of it coming out in the ease in which I can conduct discussions with my heritage students.  I’ve still got a long way to go in developing my Spanish.  I commonly come across things in life that I don’t know how to express.  “Charter schools” in Spanish, anyone? 

Heritage language teachers are attempting to get his/her students to improve and incorporate academic registers into their language usage.  I want to encourage all teachers of heritage students to set an example for your students by doing the same.  If input is the motor of linguistic growth, then your heritage students need to experience a high level of Spanish from you – and you can do it if you’re already in the Advanced range and decide to push yourself a bit.  

Go find an episode of Tiempo de Análisis to listen to tomorrow on your drive to work!  

Pinpointing everything: Reflections on teaching after OPI training

My summer consisted of getting acquainted with pyramids:  Teotihuacán, Monte Albán, and Cholula in Mexico in June, and the ACTFL proficiency pyramid at an Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) workshop in August.  Want to know more about the Mexican pyramids?  Google them and visit them.  Want to know more about OPI?  Don’t Google that, because you will get all sorts of results about some kind of make-up and pedicure technique that I have no expertise in.  You need to read all about it on ACTFL’s website or go to an OPI workshop yourself – and let me tell you why you should do so in my post below.

Table of contents.  Pick and choose what catches your attention.  The first two are the meat of the post, #3 will interest heritage teachers, and I’d love to hear answers regarding #4.

  1. Biggest takeaways:  Language tasks, curricular decisions
  2. Assessment
  3. In the heritage classroom
  4. Lingering question
  5. Other random thoughts
  6. Next steps

1.  Biggest takeaways:  Language tasks, curricular decisions

The biggest takeaway I got from the OPI workshop is being able to place virtually any linguistic task along the proficiency scale.

  • What can a novice do, and how well can they do it?  I can tell you.
  • What proficiency level is required to tell a story about how you got lost in a city and found your way back?  That’s Advanced.
  • What level is required to give a string of sentences to generally describe your city?  That’s Intermediate level.
  • How about making a list of favorite foods?  That would be a Novice task.
  • Debating the consequences of dismantling Confederate statues?  Superior.

I feel very empowered now to look at my own curriculum and that of my colleagues and determine whether or not the tasks and functions we are expecting of students at different levels are realistic, or if they are sailing too high.

Through the workshop, I have already come across some examples of things I am doing that may be too high for my students – and that may explain why they freak out so much and resort to online translators.  For instance, I am wondering if in Spanish 2 and early Spanish 3, I am having students do some Advanced level tasks that I should really modify if I want them to be able to perform them spontaneously –

  • Sitting and writing about an outdoors camping experience
  • Explaining the recipe for making a food
  • Filming and narrating a trip to the beach (in past tense)
  • Writing a letter to a politician demanding environmental change

All of the above, with the exception of the last one, would be Advanced level tasks – if performed spontaneously.  The last one would qualify as Superior or Distinguished (yikes), namely a well-educated native speaker that can adjust register for formal and informal situations.  But notice that I’m saying “spontaneously”.  See my “Lingering question” section about this down below.

I have now seen the light, for the most part, about why textbook series often get it wrong when it comes to laying out units and curriculum.  I am starting to see that a scope and sequence should progressively follow functions and contexts more than grammar structures.  

It is becoming clearer that most curriculum is laid out in the following manner:  “OK, let’s plan our third year language course. Well, by year three, students should be learning subjunctive, so they’ll need to study that.  So, what could we have them do to practice subjunctive and use it?  Ah, got it!  The environment!  Discussions about the environment lend themselves to a lot of subjunctive use – yeah!”

And then what does that same curricular planner do?  WEIRDO acronym (this here), and accompanying tasks to teach all contexts of usage for subjunctive.  When you teach subjunctive, you have to teach all the contexts in which it is used, right?  So then the planning process goes on to look for other ways within that unit, and subsequent units, that requests, impersonal expressions, doubt, and ojalá can all have a seat at the table.

See how imposing this is?  I am starting to see it.  How about we look at where a generation of our third year students are at on the proficiency scale across a range of modes (IPA preassessments), and then use the functions and contexts that are next up on ACTFL’s proficiency pyramid – or Can-Do statements, incorporate those, and then teach whatever grammar they need to do those things?  Maybe we only need to teach them subjunctive use in the context of recommendations, or recommendations and wishes, or whatever.  Or not at all!  Thinking regular-track vs. Honors distinction…

The point is, less is more.  Think in terms of what is needed for effective, comprehensible communication.  The time that we don’t spend teaching the entire universe of all past, present, future, and progressive perfect tenses and aspects we can spend talking and communicating with our classmates and the teacher.

2.  Assessment

What does the assessment front look like in the classroom with an understanding of proficiency?  One thing that I have included in my rubrics now for awhile (hopefully most folks do-?) that was reaffirmed through OPI was “comprehensibility despite errors” in my “Language use” section of my rubrics.  I do also have target grammar structures for the unit included in the “Language Use” section, and I think that for now I will keep it there, but I want to sleep on that more.

One thing that came to the forefront in reading my OPI materials later is that language learners can be at different proficiency levels for different modes of communication. Where are students generally weakest?  Speaking.  Students tend to be so freaked out about speaking assessments for this reason, and so what do most language teachers do?  Give the questions ahead of time, have them practice them, allow them to use notes, etc.  But deep down, we really want to assess for that more spontaneous communicative event.  That’s what I understand the “movement towards proficiency” to be about – right?

So how about we adjust the requirements of the speaking task down, but keep higher standards for other skills?

As an example, for a unit about describing your city in a Novice/Novice-Mid level class, perhaps a speaking assessment could include a prompt like “What kinds of places do you visit in your city every week?” and would only require students to name off and list places for successful completion – no grammatical accuracy requirements attached, just comprehensibility.  However, a written task could be “Talk about what places there are in our city to your online pen pal” and require students to use some short sentences, and partially use gender agreement accurately.  Something along those lines.

If you are a religious TPRS fundamentalist who was hoping to read this post to discover that a fellow language teacher left OPI training convinced of the need to throw grammar out the window, sorry.  ACTFL posits that grammatical knowledge runs on a scale that starts with conceptual understanding, then moves to partial control, and then ends up at complete control.

Conceptual control Partial control Complete control
“Ok, so in English, the past tense of ‘go’ is went.  Will try to remember that.”

Lots of failed attempts to use ‘went’.

Lots of “I goed”

I went to the store yesterday.  My mother goed last week. I went to the store yesterday.  My mother went last week.

OPI training does not discuss how that understanding gets into your brain in the first place, other than saying that conceptual knowledge starts the process of grammatical control, but it does seem to advocate for the value of explicit knowledge.  You move along this continuum as you move up the proficiency pyramid.  What is proposed is that we assess for those degrees of control for certain language functions at certain proficiency levels that we deem our students should be at.

Better to show than to tell.  See below for a small sample.

OPI grammar assessment at each level all mistakes are not created equal

(notes provided courtesy of Jennifer Hayes)

I finished OPI training a month ago and am already three weeks into my school year.  I haven’t had the time yet to wrap my brain around how to shift my world of assessment around based on this new understanding of conceptual–>partial–>full, but there are some powerful principles there to unpack and apply eventually.  It does seem to dovetail with some reflections I expressed in February about the explicit grammatical teaching in this post here, and so now I have more good guidance to work with.

3.  In the heritage classroom


This new ability to be able to identify the proficiency level of given tasks will enable me to be a much more effective teacher of my heritage language classes (Spanish for Native Speakers, I & II).  I feel that for the last five years, I have attempted to do a few things without having much of an eye for the proficiency level my students find themselves at.  My goal is for students to preserve and improve their Spanish through reading and discussion, but I haven’t had a measured approach to determine how advanced the readings or discussion topics are.  I can now.  I have been having them interact with authentic news, magazine articles, poetry, and short novels, revolving around topics that I think will interest them or that I think they need.  However, I haven’t been intentional enough about what proficiency level that content presumes, and as a result, some of our discussions have been over or under their level.

And measuring improvement, for heritage speakers?  I feel it’s been impossible.  Not anymore!  I will now be able to do two important things that good heritage language teachers should be able to do:  accurately assess what type of proficiency level my students are at, and then define what things they will need to do in order to reach the next level.

During the OPI workshop, I was thinking about a lot of my heritage class students – and I came to the stark realization that they are all over the board.  I mean, I have sort of known that, but now I know it with much more specificity.  They are more scattered along the proficiency spectrum than my general language classes.  I am no longer concerned about it though.  I no longer need to vaguely know that “Jose speaks Spanish more fluently than Guillermo”.  I will now be able to determine that “Jose’s level of Spanish is Advanced-Low, but Guillermo’s is Intermediate-Mid, and so he cannot narrate in all time frames and describe things in paragraph format – all of which Guillermo can do.  Guillermo will need to work on describing things and telling stories, but José needs to be pushed towards perfecting his usage of preterit and imperfect, and then work on answering higher-order prompts that challenge him to think of our topics in the abstract and apply them to society at large.”  Something like that.

Here is a post which shows how I am already planning to implement some major differentiation in my heritage classroom this year (spoiler alert:  major differentiated instruction / individual goal setting).  I haven’t gotten to this element yet in the school year.  However, when I showed the idea to my SNS 2 students who sat under me for SNS 1 last year and know what it’s like for all 25 of them to examine the same grammar topics at the same time, it got some cheers.

4.  Lingering question

The OPI is all about what speakers can do spontaneously.  Language proficiency is measured by what speakers can do on the spot when asked, or when quickly thrown into a role play scene:  You’re looking for a new apartment, and you’ve come to ask me about it – ready, set, go.  But what is often the nature of learning in our classes?  We emphasize preparation.  “Here is your assignment – you have 30 minutes of class time to prepare, but you will need to work on it more at home.”  “Those of you students who spend time outside of class preparing will be the most successful.  So work hard at this!”

I am now in a bit of a quagmire about teaching for and assessing for proficiency – by that definition.  In theory, for students to demonstrate their proficiency to me, I should not be informing them ahead of time of what I’m going to “ask” them.  Perhaps the answer is that within the context of a given unit, if there have been clear topics that have been focused on, and students have performed communicative tasks with those topics, then any production prompt given to them – whether written or spoken – would not be a surprise.  But still, most teachers, including myself, feel inclined to give students some lead on what and how they will be assessed – and students in turn feel compelled to go prepare.  But if we are focused on communication in the classroom, they would be prepared.

Am I answering my own question?

5.  Other random thoughts:



6.  Further steps

I signed up for Full OPI certification a couple weeks ago.  I should be hearing from OPI any day now about further steps.  In the mean time, I have listened to all sorts of sample OPI’s on their training site, and have done three practice interviews just for the heck of it – and even that has had a positive effect on my proficiency understandings as a teacher (oh, this is what Intermediate-Low speakers sound like).  But 2200+ words is enough for now, so I’ll have to save that for a later post.

Make sure to fit an OPI workshop into your professional development at some point as a language teacher.  I was able to pay for the $850 workshop and the $350 certification fee through a grant from FundforTeachers.  But before you attend the workshop, get your nails done using the OPI ProSpa Pedicure Massage technique.